WHY NOT MARC?
Harriette Hemmasi
Indiana University
Variations2Digital Music Library
ISMIR: October 16, 2002

Variations2 Context
Overview
Funded by NSF and NEH through Digital Libraries Phase 2 (DLI2) program

Variations2 Project Goals
Establish a digital music library test-bed system
Integrate and synchronize multiple digital formats
Audio recordings, score images, score notation, and video
Develop multiple user interface applications
Library, instruction
Conduct research
Usability, intellectual property, metadata

Music Metadata in V2
Needed to search, identify, access, and navigate digitized representations of music
Descriptive metadata
Structural (navigational) metadata
Administrative metadata

Why not MARC?
MACHINE-READABLE CATALOG RECORDS
CONTAIN VALUABLE
MUSIC METADATA

Traditional Library Records
Based on
AACR2R
MARC standards
Represent
Bibliographic entities
Authoritative names, titles, subjects

US MARC Bibliographic Record

US MARC Bibliographic Record

Slide 9

Strict Syntax in MARC Records
245 00 Concerto for violin and orchestra /
c Walton. Symphonie espagnole / Lalo
h [sound recording].
260 [New York?] : b Columbia, c [1961?]
300 1 sound disc : b analog, 33 1/3 rpm,
stereo. ; c 12 in.

Standardized Form of Entry
in MARC Records
047 co a sy
100 1 Walton, William, d 1902-
240 10 Concertos, m violin, orchestra

Many MARC Records
Already Available: RLG
RLG Union Catalog contains
1,807,400 scores
2,071,300 sound recordings

Many MARC Records
Already Available: OCLC
OCLC WorldCat
1,097,700 scores
1,602,164 sound recordings

Online Shared Catalog Systems
Total Bibliographic Records (music)
3 million scores
3.6 million sound recordings
Total Authority Records (music and other)
9.3 million name and name/title headings
.5 million subject headings

Variations2 Uses MARC Data
Imports records via Z39.50
With added improvements in
Content
Structure
Relationships
Environment

CONTENT: Descriptive Metadata
Descriptive metadata comprehensive in MARC
V2 uses MARC descriptive metadata but but assigns elements to separate entities

CONTENT: Re-think Descriptive Metadata?
Mood descriptors
Associated movie titles
Impressions, captions supplied by users (little aliens)
Variations: sounds like, feels like, makes me think of

CONTENT: MARC
Structural metadata limited in MARC
Table of contents
Duration
Pagination
URL

CONTENT: V2
Structural metadata enhanced in V2
Movements, acts, scenes, sections
Track timings and descriptions
Page and measure numbers

CONTENT: MARC
Administrative metadata limited
in MARC
Copyright date
Date MARC record created
Local access restrictions
File format

CONTENT: V2
Administrative metadata expanded
in V2
Technical data
Access rights
Preservation data

CONTENT: MARC
Pre-coordinated, multi-faceted
headings found in MARC
Titles
Subject Headings

CONTENT: Pre-coordinated,
Multi-faceted Titles in MARC
a = title of work
m = medium of performance (instrumentation)
n = number of part/section of work
r = key for music
o = arranged

CONTENT: Pre-coordinated,
Multi-faceted Titles in V2
Original title form maintained in V2
Enhancement offered via system-prompted searching of individual title elements

CONTENT: Pre-coordinated, Multi-faceted Subject Headings in MARC
Some headings contain subfields
Woodwind instruments x Reeds
Jazz v Discographies
Composers z Austria
Chorale preludes y 17th century

CONTENT: Pre-coordinated, Multi-faceted Subject Headings in MARC
Some headings do not contain subfields
Folk songs, Yiddish
Sonatas (Saxophone and piano)
Accordion music (Jazz)

CONTENT: De-coordinated, Single Concept Descriptors in V2
Single-concept descriptors applied
Form/genre
Instrumentation
Language
System-prompted searching of unique facets
End-user thesaurus (next version)
Original multi-faceted subject headings maintained

CONTENT:
Added Vocabulary Control in V2
Contributor roles
Languages
Geographical places
Dates
Key of composition, section
Instrumentation
Notation
Document type

STRUCTURE
MARC vs. V2

STRUCTURE: MARC Data Model

STRUCTURE: V2 Data Model

STRUCTURE: Comparison of MARC and V2 Record Types

Slide 33

STRUCTURE: Container-Centered MARC Record (2 works in 1 container)

STRUCTURE: Work-Centered V2 Data Model (2 works in 1 container)

RELATIONSHIPS: MARC vs. V2
Entities mostly unrelated in MARC structure
Entities closely related in V2 data model

RELATIONSHIPS: MARC
Links between MARC bibliographic and
authority records
Streamline data entry
Improve data accuracy
Facilitate global updates
Provide collocation in searching

RELATIONSHIPS: V2
Links between V2 entities
Streamline data entry
Improve data accuracy
Facilitate global updates
Provide collocation in searching
AND...

RELATIONSHIPS: (V2 Links, cont)
Bind media object to instantiation, to work
Allow navigation of work via track, timing, movement, or page
Permit synchronized playback and viewing of scores and sound recordings
Link all versions, formats, publications, or parts of same work

Linking Relationships: MARC
Linking of versions, formats, publications, or parts of same work solely dependent on collocation function of authoritative form of name/title
Different formats must be searched separately
Individually published parts of same work must be searched separately

Linking Relationships: V2
Linking of versions, formats, publications, or parts of same work interdependent on clearly established relationships between work, instantiation, container, media object records, and work bindings
Different formats can be searched simultaneously or separately
Individually published parts of same work can be searched together or separately

RELATIONSHIPS: Separate Format Searching in Library Catalog

Slide 43

Relationships between
Title Authority and Bib Records in MARC -- Separate, Lateral Searching for Parts of Same Work

RELATIONSHIPS: Work Record and Instantiations in V2 -- Simultaneous, Hierarchical Searching for Parts of Same Work

Relationship between Container and URL in MARC Record
Title proper of container
245 00 Concerto for violin and orchestra /
c Walton. Symphonie espagnole / Lalo
h [sound recording].
URL
856 uhttp://purl.dlib.Indiana.edu/iudl/.

Relationship between Work, Instantiation, Container, Media Object in V2

Work Bindings Allow Synchronized Access to
Various Instantiations (Mvt 1)

Work Bindings Allow Synchronized Access to
Various Instantiations (Mvt 2)

ENVIRONMENT
MARC vs. V2

ENVIRONMENT: Limits of Conventional Online Catalog Search Interface
Under-represents data at point of searching
Few music-specific searches
Minimal or no lead-in vocabulary
Under-utilizes data at point of retrieval and display
Insufficient links
Unsorted search results
Follow-up searches often required

ENVIRONMENT:
Advantages of V2 Search Interface
Data model ensures linkages between same work in multiple formats, editions
Navigation between different instantiations of same work and parts of same work possible from single search
Expanded vocabulary control and lead-in vocabulary for end-users
Customized search & retrieval options for music

SUMMARY
Despite weaknesses in MARC records and the online environment in which they live,
MARC data can and should have an important role in the total solution for creating and maintaining
Music metadata.

Why MARC?
Volume of existing metadata
New metadata being created daily
Machine-readable, standardized format
Valuable descriptive metadata
Extensible
Created by reliable sources
Controlled name/title forms
Maintained over time
Why not some of MARC?

Next Steps/Questions
More user testing
Practicality of research-level metadata, points of access
Distribution in a simpler form
Level of agreement and endorsement
Sharing of music metadata

Finally,
What is needed for the
Universal
Digital Music Library?

Variations2 Grant Information
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 9909068.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Further Information
URL: http://variations2.indiana.edu
E-mail: variations2@variations2.indiana.edu
E-mail: hhemmasi@indiana.edu