The Digital Music Library:
Progress & Prognostications
Mary Wallace Davidson
(Indiana University, USA)
International Association of Music Libraries, Tallinn,
10 July 2003

PART I:
PROGRESS ON VARIATIONS2
(Indiana University)

VARIATIONS2
Goals
Establish a digital music library testbed system
Integrate and synchronize multiple digital formats:  score (graphic images and digital notation), audio, and video
Develop multiple user interface applications:  music library and instruction

VARIATIONS2
Research areas:
System design
Usability
Metadata
Intellectual property
Music instruction (Theory & “Oncourse”)
Networking

VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
System design:  Version 1 released and stable

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VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Version 2 to be released this summer:
new “Opus” window interface to synchronize score and sound recording
to include “Timeliner” application for theory classes to use in teaching/learning structural analysis.

VARIATIONS2 “OPUS” WINDOW

VARIATIONS2 TIMELINER

VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Usability:
Studied current practices of Variations(1) users to:
Establish a baseline for future comparison
Guide design decisions for Variations2
Evaluated Variations2 usability via 3 methods:
1) Observations and interviews in context (library) using assignment prototype
2) Lab-based usability testing of prototypes and finished releases
3) Pilot studies of actual class use by volunteers:

Pilot study—Song Literature (III)
Schubert listening assignment
7 songs
Scores, song texts with translations, recordings viewed simultaneously
30 students

Pilot study —Theory
Sonata form analysis
1 movement
Students created bookmarks, saved excerpts to other files, and annotated them
Could check answers
Class of 200 students (fewer participants)

VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Metadata:
1216 work, 839 contributor, and 158 container records created since September 2002
Interaction with system developers to improve administrative interface
Cataloging training rules written
Catalogers trained at one satellite site

Work record: Description

Work record: Contributor

Work record: Work structure

Contributor record:

Contributor record (con’t.)

Container record: Description

Container record: Contributors

Container record: Structure

Container record: Media objects

Container record: Instantiations

Metadata Repository
(System architecture)
Currently implemented using relational database: IBM DB2 7.2 on AIX
DB2 Text Information Extender search engine
Search and storage mechanisms independent of database implementation
Persistent IDs assigned by server to all entities, e.g. IU/Container/1234
Can be used to generate URNs in future
Cataloging performed in separate database, copied to production database periodically

VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Intellectual Property
One new paper by Kenneth Crews:
“Copyright Law for the Digital Music Education Library: The Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings” (Re:  §114, Scope of exclusive rights in sound recordings in broadcasting)
[See http://variations2.indiana.edu/legal/index.html]

Crews, “Copyright Law . . . “

PROGRESS:  VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Music instruction
Pilot class assignments
Song literature (Schubert assignment)
Theory (Use of bookmarks to answer class assignments)
Development of “Timeliner”
Virtual music history course in Indianapolis via “Oncourse” (Integrated online classroom system, developed at IU), making use of Variations2 music:

Music History “Oncourse” questions:

Music History “Oncourse” replies:

Music History “Oncourse” responses:

PROGRESS:  VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Networking
Goal is to quantify the network requirements and specify appropriate methodologies for the digital delivery of high fidelity, real-time audio and data for interactive digital music library applications

PROGRESS:  VARIATIONS2
2002-2003
Networking
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (US)   *
University of Massachusetts at Amherst (US)
Northwestern University (US)
City University (UK)   *
Kings College - London (UK)   *
Loughborough University (UK)   *
University of Oxford (UK)   *
Waseda University (Japan)
* = Activated, with understanding that satellite site use of Variations2 is not for general music library purposes – but is according to specific proposed projects.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:

“Variations2:  Indiana University Digital Music Library Project”
http://variations2.indiana.edu/
This material in this presentation is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 9909068.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

PART II:
OTHER US PROJECTS

Commercial bids to libraries:
Classical.com (audio)
+
Byron Hoyt (print)
+
Silver Platter (aggregator)
(a subsidiary of Ovid, owned by Wolters Kluwer N.V.)
=  COMING SOON!

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Commercial bids to libraries:

Sheet Music Consortium:
Harvests metadata currently from:
Indiana University’s Lilly Library (1500 records)
Johns Hopkins University (11,590 records)
UCLA Music Library's Archive of Popular American Music 1,103)
Library of Congress (47,528)
See Steven Davison’s presentation at http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/music/oaisheetmusic/mla.ppt (MLA, February 2003)
Search engine running at, http://digital.library.ucla.edu/sheetmusic/

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Judy Tsou’s Web site keeps track!
“Digital Projects and Developing Technologies in Music & Media ,” University of Washington Music Library, http://www.lib.washington.edu/music/projects.html
(The site is international)

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Here’s a new one to add:
Peabody Digital Audio Archive Project
http://dkc.mse.jhu.edu/pdaap_project.html
and/or
http://www.jhunewsletter.com/vnews/display.v/ART/2002/11/22/3ddd849f0694a

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. . .  and another:

http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub96/contents.html

Ginny Danielson’s site collects collections
“Digital Music Collections,” Eda Kuhn Loeb Music Library, Harvard University, http://hcl.harvard.edu/loebmusic/online-ir-digital.html
(The site is limited to US collections)

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. . . which brings us to:
PART III:
Digital Music Libraries
viz.
Digital Music Collections

Definitions (1995):
The digital library is not a single entity;
The digital library requires technology to link the resources of many;
The linkages between the many digital libraries and information services are transparent to the end users;
Universal access to digital libraries and information services is a goal;
Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates: they extend to digital artifacts that cannot be represented or distributed in printed formats.
--Association of Research Libraries (1995)

Definitions (1998)
The collection of services and the collection of information objects that support users in dealing with information objects,
And the organization and presentation of those objects available directly or indirectly via electronic/digital means.
-- Draft prepared by Barry M. Leiner for the DLib Working Group on Digital Library Metrics, http://www.dlib.org/metrics/public/papers/dig-lib-scope.html

Definitions (1998):
The "digital library" is not merely equivalent to a digitized collection with information management tools. It is also a series of activities that brings together collections, services, and people in support of the full life cycle of creation, dissemination, use, and preservation of data, information, and knowledge.
-- Virginia Tech Scholarly Communications Project (DLI2 grant), http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/DLI2/defineDL.html

Definitions (2002):

Definitions (2003)
DL as collection/information system
“a collection of information that is both digitized and organized” -- Mike Lesk, National Science Foundation
“networked collections of digital text, documents, images, sounds, scientific data, and software”
-- President’s Information Technology Advisory Council report
DL as organization:
“an organization that provides the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities”
-- Digital Library Federation
-- quoted by Jon Dunn in lecture notes for L631 at Indiana University